Indonesia said on Tuesday it would summon representatives of messaging services and search engines, including Alphabet's Google, to demand they remove obscene content, a day after threatening to shut down WhatsApp Messenger.
The Internet is already partly censored in Indonesia, but the latest steps mark an escalation against a background of growing conservatism in the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation.
"We will call all providers, including Google to clean up their network," said Semuel Pangerapan, a director general at Indonesia's communication and informatics ministry.
The ministry vowed on Monday to block Facebook's WhatsApp Messenger within 48 hours if the service did not ensure that obscene Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images were removed.
"They have to follow the rules of the host," Pangerapan said of WhatsApp Messenger, which is widely used in Indonesia - prolifically by some ministers and bureaucrats.
WhatsApp said on Monday that message encryption prevented it from monitoring the animated graphics files, known as GIFs, that are available on the app through third-party services.
It said it had asked the government instead to work with those providers, which integrate their technology into WhatsApp to allow users to enter keywords to search for GIFs.
Tenor Inc, one of the third parties, said on Tuesday it had "already implemented a fix for the content issues".
Users of WhatsApp Messenger on iPhone were unable to access Tenor GIFs on Tuesday.
The company "regularly" worked with "local entities to make sure our content reflects the cultural mores and legal requirements," spokeswoman Jennifer Kutz said in a statement.
Giphy, a New York City GIFs company that also works with WhatsApp, did not respond to requests to comment. Giphy offers partners a feature to filter inappropriate images.
Indonesia's warning did not appear to target Gboard, a keyboard app developed by Google that provides comparable GIF search results but must be installed separately from WhatsApp on most devices.
Indonesia blocks access to websites offering criticism of Islam, dating services and sex education, research published in May by Tor Project, a non-profit maker of Web browsing tools, showed.
Indonesia had 69 million monthly active Facebook users by the first quarter of 2014, ranking it fourth globally after the United States, India and Brazil, company data showed.
Some reaction on Indonesian social media to the threatened block was sceptical.
"While you're at it, why don't you block Twitter too, (and) if necessary all browsers in the Playstore, because it's way easier to search for porn there than on WhatsApp," wrote one Twitter user, with the handle @jnessy.
The country's regulators have reached settlements with several technology companies after threatening to shut them down. In August, Indonesia announced it would block Giphy's website for showing gambling-related ads. Access was soon restored after it agreed to cooperate with regulators.
Bans were similarly rescinded in recent years on social media websites, such as Vimeo and Tumblr, and the chat app Telegram, which regulators had said was "full of radicals and terrorist propaganda."
© Thomson Reuters 2017